Technical Information & Scientific Properties for Common Species of Hardwood & Softwood


  • Other Names: Triplochiton scleroxylon, Obeche, West African Cedar, Abachi, Wawa, Sambawawa, Ambara™
  • Description: Ambara™, our thermally modified Ayous has an even caramel color due to the thermal modification process. Naturally durable and incredibly stable, thermally modified Ayous is a fantastic choice for siding, rainscreen, trim boards, pergolas and more.
  • Janka Hardness: 285 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 8,820 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 970 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 320
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 2.0%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 2.0%

Angelim Pedra

  • Other Names: Hymenolobium excelsum, Para Angelim, Rocky Deck, Apitong, Brazilian Keruing, Angel's Heart
  • Description: Angelim Pedra, or Angel's Heart, varies from tan to yellow with dark red and brown vertical striping. For its beauty and durability, Angelim Pedra is a great combination of the two, boasting a Janka hardness rating of 1,720. It is also very resistant to dry-wood termites. Even with its beauty and durability, Angelim Pedra is very affordable, far surpassing the beauty of many hardwoods with a much larger price tag.
  • Janka Hardness: 1,720 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 18,255 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 2,050 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 690
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 7.1%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 4.4%

Angelique, Basralocus

  • Other Names: Dicorynia guianensis, Dicorynia paraensis, Angelica do Para, Tapaiuana, Barakaroeballi, Basralokus
  • Description: Heartwood reddish-brown-gray to reddish- or yellowish-brown sharply demarcated from narrow brownish-white sapwood. Texture medium; unusual subsurface luster; grain usually straight, sometimes somewhat interlocked; no distinctive odor or taste. Vessels are prominent as long brown lines on side grain producing an attractive figure. Silica content reported 0.20 to 1.70% and as high as 2.92%.
  • Janka Hardness: 1,290 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 17,390 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 2,190 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 650
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 8.2%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 5.1%

Bangkirai, Yellow Balau

  • Other Names: Shorea laevis, Anggelam, Balau, Benuas, Kumus, Penepak
  • Description: Bangkirai wood has a brownish yellow heartwood and a light brown sapwood. Its grain can be straight or interlocked, featuring a glossy and smooth texture. Bangkirai has great durability as well as great hardness, with Janka hardness rating of 1798. Bangkirai has long been used both for finer uses such as flooring, but for heavy duty uses as well, such as marine and heavy construction. A great all-rounder, Indonesian Bangkirai hardwood flooring is beautiful flooring choice.
  • Janka Hardness: 1,798 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 20,950 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 2,900 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 930
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 9.3%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 4.2%

Batu, Red Balau

  • Other Names: Shorea guiso, Red Balau, Alan Batu, Selangan Batu, Mangaris, Membatu.
  • Description: Meranti Batu / Red Balau resembles the rich classic look of Genuine Mahogany. Batu / Red Balau heartwood ranges from a medium red to a deep red / brown and often has resin canals with white contents in concentric lines on end surfaces produce a warm and visually striking effect; the texture of Batu / Red Balau is moderately fine and grain is typically interlocked.
  • Janka Hardness: 2,100 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 18,400 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 2,560 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 850
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 8.8%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 6.3%

Brazilian Cherry, Jatoba

  • Other Names: Hymenaea coubaril, Jatoba, Brazilian Cherry, Jutai, Locust, Copal, Azucar, Jatai
  • Description: Brazilian Cherry, also known as Jatoba, is one of the most popular exotic hardwoods. It’s not difficult to see why: Brazilian Cherry's breathtaking reddish-brown heartwood is lined by dark black streaks, giving it not only contrast but amazing depth as well. The heartwood will darken over time to a softer red-brown. Beyond its beauty, Brazilian Cherry is incredibly strong, with a Janka hardness rating of 2350. Silica is a natural mineral deposit commonly found in Brazilian Cherry, which can appear as a milky discoloration on the surface of the wood. This natural mineral can be identified by thin white lines in the grain, which go all the way through the piece. As the wood darkens due to exposure these affected areas remain lighter and typically present themselves in the form of blotches and streaks. We make every effort to eliminate silica from our Select & Clear grade flooring, however, it is not uncommon for some boards to make it past the inspection process. Because silica is a naturally occurring mineral within the tree it is not considered a defect and is not basis for a claim.
  • Janka Hardness: 2,350 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 19,400 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 2,160 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 800
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 6.2%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 4.8%

California Redwood

  • Other Names: California Redwood
  • Description: California Redwood
  • Janka Hardness: 450 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 8,950 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 1,220 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 450
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 4.7%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 2.4%

Cambara Mahogany

  • Other Names: Erisma uncinatum, Mahogany, Jaboty, Quarubarana, Mureillo, Cedrinho, Mureillo
  • Description: Cambara is a medium density wood from South America. More than just resilient, Cambara's medium luster and light reddish-brown heartwood make it a beautiful choice. Virtually knot-free, Cambara's close, straight grain gives it a pleasing uniform appearance. Cambara's natural durability often makes it a frequent choice for deckingl. With its agreeable tones, Cambara makes for a very decoratively versatile paneling or ceiling able to accompany a variety of colors schemes and furnishing styles.
  • Janka Hardness: 860 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 12,800 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 1,640 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 650
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 9.1%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 4.2%

Cumaru, Brazilian Teak

  • Other Names: Dipterix odorata, Southern Chestnut, Brazilian Teak
  • Description: Cumaru, commonly called Brazilian Chestnut, is a tough and dense wood imported from Brazil that has an irregular, somewhat interlocked grain and wavy, course texture. Because of its density, it is very resistant to termites and decay. Cumaru's heartwood is a medium brown with distinctive tan shades that compliment one another in with tonal warmth to create a relaxing feeling that's great to come home to.
  • Janka Hardness: 3,200 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 24,800 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 3,050 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 1,080
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 8.4%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 5.4%

Dark Red Meranti

  • Other Names: Shorea negrosensis, Aprit, Aruas, Babanganon, Philippine mahogany, Dark red seraya, Red lauan, Tampalasaha
  • Description: Dark red meranti (DRM) is found in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It is a very popular wood among architects and designers because if its high luster and good machining properties. In Europe, DRM has long been used for the production of sophisticated joinery products, such as doors, window frames, and doors. DRM sports a great mixture of yellow, white, and red tones creating a very warming combination of colors.
  • Janka Hardness: 780 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 12,700 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 1,770 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 730
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 6.6%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 3.4%

Douglas Fir

  • Other Names: Pseudotsuga menziesii, Blue Douglas-fir, British Columbia pine, British Colubian pine, Coast Douglas-fir, Colorado Douglas-fir, Colorado Pino real, Colorado real, Columbian Pine, Douglas spruce, Inland Douglas-fir, Interior Douglas-fir, Oregon Douglas-fir, Oregon pine, Puget Sound pine, Red fir, Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir, Yellow fir
  • Description: Douglas Fir has the highest strength to weight ratio of any wood species. Primarily found in the western US and Canada, Douglas Fir is frequently use for dimension lumber in lower grades, and for interior finish work in upper grades. Douglas Fir clears are renowned for their strength, durability, and ability to stand up to the elements. In addition to its strength, Douglas Fir has rich coloring with the heartwood aging to a dark tan-red color and the sap wood remaining light tan. Vertical grain, clear Douglas Fir is widely considered to be one of the finest materials available for trim, mouldings, doors, windows, exposed beams, ceilings and paneling. Douglas Fir CVG flooring has been used throughout the US since the 1800's and is often found in classic historic homes.
  • Janka Hardness: 710 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 12,400 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 1,950 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 530
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 7.6%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 4.8%

Garapa, Golden Teak

  • Other Names: Apuleia leiocarpa, Grapia, Almendrillo Amarillo, Muirajuba, Cobre, Ana, Ana caspi, Gateado, Mapurite, Garapa Gold
  • Description: Garapa is a South American wood with yellow to brown-yellow heartwood. Garapa decking has a medium luster, an interlocked grain, and a fine texture that accentuates the wood's rich gold and brown tones. The wood is also rated with a solid Janka hardness rating of 1,700, about 25% harder than Red Oak. Rated as durable and resistant to fungi and insects, Garapa exterior decking is an attractive and versatile option that is as resilient as it is beautiful.
  • Janka Hardness: 1,700 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 18,100 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 1,835 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 830
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 10.0%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 6.5%

Genuine Mahogany

  • Other Names: Swietenia macrophylla, Honduran Mahogany, Mogno, Caoba, Acajou, Aguano, Mara
  • Description: Genuine mahogany is widely distributed throughout Central and South America. It has been highly valued for its woodworking qualities and natural rich red-brown beauty since traders first began shipping it to Europe in the 16th Century. It is a highly stable wood, extremely durable, easy to work with and a first choice of craftsmen for flooring, furniture, wall and ceiling paneling and high-end cabinetry. This is the original and true Mahogany wood.
  • Janka Hardness: 800 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 11,460 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 1,450 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 650
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 4.1%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 2.5%


  • Other Names: Pecan Carya spp, Bitter pecan, Hickory, Pecan hickory, Sweet pecan, Nutmeg Hickory, Bitternut, Bitternut hickory, Swamp hickory, Water hickory, Wild pecan, Bitter pecan Nogal morado, Nuez encarcelada
  • Description: The distinctive and numerous shades of brown inherent in a Hickory hardwood floor create remarkable contrasts that, along with its intricate grain patterns, are nothing short of spectacular. Not only is Hickory flooring naturally striking in the aesthetic sense, but it is also the hardest of all North American woods. Hickory flooring has been admired for quite some time in the U.S. and abroad for both its beauty and strength, being traditionally used for decorative paneling and furniture veneer as well as for tool handles and pallets. Because of this combination of durability and powerful color contrasts, Hickory makes a versatile and attractive flooring material well-suited for any style of home.
  • Janka Hardness: 1,820 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 13,700 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 1,730 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 620
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 8.9%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 4.9%

Ipe, Brazilian Walnut

  • Other Names: Handroanthus spp, formerly Tabebuia spp, Brazilian Ebony, Brazilian Walnut, Ironwood, Irontree, Tajibo, Guayacan, Lapacho, Arcwood, Extreme Ipe, ExtremeIpe
  • Description: Ipe is an incredibly durable wood. Its dense cell structure serves as a natural deterrent to insects, decay, and molds. Because of this natural resilience Ipe is often the first choice for decking because of its almost unparalleled ability to stand up to the elements. More than just durable, Ipe is also very pleasing to the eye. Its heartwood is light to dark olive brown with contrasting yellowish-grey or grey brown tones accompanying it. With a Class A fire rating, Ipe occupies the same class of fire-retardant materials as steel. For durability, safety, and beauty, Ipe makes an excellent choice.
  • Janka Hardness: 3,680 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 25,400 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 3,140 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 1,050
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 8.0%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 6.6%


  • Other Names: Koompassia spp,Thongbueng, Gemaris, Hampas, Nyari, Kempas rawang, Impas (Sabah), Mengris (Sarawak),Tualangun
  • Description: Kempas is generally imported from Asia and grows in Malaysia and Indonesia. The heartwood is a fairly consistent color which ranges from orange-red to reddish-brown with subtly contrasting yellow to pale white tones. The heartwood will darken with time. Kempas is somewhat similar to Cumaru from Brazil but does not have as much definition in the grain.
  • Janka Hardness: 1,750 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 17,700 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 2,690 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 880
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 7.4%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 6.0%


  • Other Names: Acer spp, Ahorn, Erable, European maple, Field maple, Bird’s Eye maple, Black maple, Canadian maple, Curly maple, Fiddleback maple, Hard maple, Rock maple, Sugar maple, White maple, Bigleaf maple, Broadleaf maple, Oregon maple, Pacific Coast maple, Western maple, Silver maple, Soft maple, White maple, Ashleaf maple, Boxelder, Manitoba maple
  • Description: Maple is a bright, attractive and classic hardwood standard in the United States, celebrated as the state tree of Wisconsin, Vermont, West Virginia, and New York. The light, pale tone of maple accentuates the light of any room, both brightening the room while simultaneously making it appear more expansive. The reddish-brown heartwood is accompanied by tones that are sometimes tinged with reddish-brown as well. It has a fine, uniform texture and is incredibly strong and shock resistant, with particular resistance to abrasion and wear, making maple a classic beauty that you will be able to enjoy in your home for years to come.
  • Janka Hardness: 1,450 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 10,700 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 1,450 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 755
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 9.9%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 4.8%

Massaranduba, Brazilian Redwood

  • Other Names: Manilkara bidentata, Chicozapote, Ausubo, Nispero, Beefwood, Bolletri, Balata Rouge, Paraju, Bulletwood
  • Description: Brazilian Redwood, also known as Massaranduba, is a gorgeous and durable hardwood whose durability makes it a frequent choice not only for flooring but decking as well. The naturally beautiful heartwood can range from light to dark brownish-red, with a grain that can be straight, somewhat wavy, or interlocked. Brazilian Redwood is also very easy to maintain, and it's Janka hardness rating of 3,190 ensures that it will stand up just as well against impacts in the short term as it will against decay in the long term.
  • Janka Hardness: 3,190 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 29,200 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 3,450 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 1,000
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 9.4%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 6.3%


  • Other Names: Kwila, Ipil, Malacca Teak, Mirabow, Moluccan Ironwood
  • Description: Merbau is a beautiful exotic hardwood that grows in the forests of Southeast Asia as well as throughout the South Pacific region. When freshly cut the color of the wood is yellow to orangish-brown, but upon exposure will darken to a rich dark brown to reddish-brown color much like Brazilian Cherry. One unique characteristic of Merbau is the yellow flecks, or mineral deposits, which can be seen in many of the pieces. These flecks will become more subtle over time, but when initially finished the wood appears to be flecked with gold.
  • Janka Hardness: 1,840 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 20,700 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 2,465 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 750
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 4.6%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 2.7%


  • Other Names: Peltogyne spp, Amaranth, Nazareno, Pau Roxo, Bois Violet, Barabou
  • Description: The breathtaking coloring that has made Purpleheart world famous occurs when its freshly cut brown heartwood is exposed to the air, rapidly turning deep purple. Over time, prolonged exposure to light causes the heartwood to slowly transition from purple to a rich, dark brownish-purple shade. Purpleheart also possesses complimentary tones that can range from pale pink to whitish-grey. Purpleheart is very popular not only because of its amazing color, but also for its high level of durability. This wood serves as stunning decorative accent to any room and is sure to catch the admiring eye of any visitor.
  • Janka Hardness: 1,860 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 21,300 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 2,420 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 1,050
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 6.1%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 3.2%

Red Oak

  • Other Names: Quercus spp, American red oak, Black oak, Canadian red oak, Gray oak, Northern red oak, Southern red oak, Scarlet oak, Spanish oak
  • Description: The red-tinged brown heartwood and white tones of Red Oak creates a subtle but resonant contrast that makes this wood uniquely enjoyable. A consistent grain adds to the grace of the overall presentation of the wood. All of these elements make Red Oak a colorfully multifaceted yet understated beauty that, much like White Oak, is aesthetically complimentary to any style of home.
  • Janka Hardness: 1,290 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 14,300 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 1,850 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 780
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 8.6%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 4.0%


  • Other Names: Astronium fraxinifolium, Muiracatiara, Cuta Tigre, Bois de Zebre, Bossona, Goncalo Alves, Mura, Kingwood, Urunday-para, Zebrawood, Zorrowood
  • Description: Tigerwood is a highly distinctive exotic wood with vibrant reddish-brown tones and prominent black striping that varies in thickness from fine strokes to thick contours. Its interlocked grain is also wavy and irregular, complimenting the wood’s dynamic appearance. Tigerwood is ranked among the more durable hardwoods with a Janka hardness rating of 1850, making Tigerwood a visually striking floor that lasts.
  • Janka Hardness: 1,850 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 20,120 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 2,390 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 930
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 7.6%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 4.0%

Western Red Cedar

  • Other Names: Thuja plicata, Cypress, Oregon Cedar, Giant Cedar, Arborvitae, British Columbia cedar, Canoe cedar, Pacific red cedar, Shinglewood, Giant arborvitae
  • Description: Western Red Cedar is a popular softwood that sports cozy colors ranging from soft burnt sienna to creamy yellows. These tones give the wood a very rustic feel that makes it seem as if it specifically created to reflect the warm glow of a nearby fireplace. Western Red Cedar is also known for having an even and fine grain. Great for creating a cozy country look, Western Red Cedar is sure to add a feeling of warmth and comfort to any room.
  • Janka Hardness: 350 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 7,500 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 1,110 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 410
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 5.0%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 2.4%

White Oak

  • Other Names: Quercus spp, Arizona oak, Stave oak, white oak, Swamp white oak, Brewer oak, Garry oak, Oregon oak, California white oak, Valley oak, Valley white oak,
  • Description: White Oak is full of light tones that give a crisp, clean feel. It has long been a versatile standard in homes across the U.S. because of its universally complimentary combination of deep grayish-brown heartwood and pale white tones. White Oak is also known for its durability, strength, and resistance to wear, serving as planking for boats and even mine timbers. This elegant wood’s amazing decorative flexibility makes it an outstanding floor for all settings and occasions. White Oak comes in a variety of colors and stains to suit any decor.
  • Janka Hardness: 1,360 pounds
  • Strength (MOR): 15,200 psi
  • Stiffness (MOE): 1,780 1000 psi
  • Density (KG/m3): 900
  • Tangential Shrinkage: 7.2%
  • Radial Shrinkage: 4.2%